Makler Counting Chamber for Rapid Semen Evaluation
The Makler Counting Chamber is only 10 microns deep: 1/10th of the depth of ordinary
hemocytometers, making it the shallowest of known chambers. Constructed
from two pieces of optically flat glass, the upper layer serves as a cover glass,
with a 1 sq.mm fine grid in the center subdivided into 100 squares of 0.1 x 0.1
mm each. Spacing is firmly secured by four quartz pins.
Technique: A small, uncalibrated drop from a well mixed undiluted specimen
is placed in the center of the Chamber by means of a simple rod and immediately
covered. A microscopic objective of x20 is required.
Evaluation: Non-motile sperm are counted within an area of nine or
sixteen squares in the center of the grid. Moving sperms are then counted,
and graded if desired. The procedure is repeated in several areas.
Percentage of motility and its quality are then calculated.
Count: A part of the original specimen is transferred to another test
tube for immobilization by placing the tube in hot water (50o-60o):
a cup with 2/3 boiling water and 1/3 tap water is suggested. A drop of the
immobilized specimen is then placed in the Chamber and counting initiated: sperm
heads within a ten square area are counted in the same manner as blood cells are
counted in a hemocytomer, their number represents their concentration in millions
per ml. In cases of oligospermic semen, sperms in the entire grid area are
to be counted, representing their concentration in hundreds of thousands.
The Chamber is easily
rinsed with water for reuse. Contact surfaces are wiped with special lens
paper after washing.
spermatozoa are uniformly distributed and monolayered, and are observed in one
is unnecessary even with concentrated specimens. Analysis is done directly
from original specimen in its natural environment.
spermatozoa acquire friction free, horizontal movement and are always examined
under constant conditions.
specimen can be analyzed quickly as an office procedure while the patient is waiting,
and even by an inexperienced person.
of analysis is enhanced through the elimination of the various steps required
by the usual hemocytometric technique. In addition, the fact that sperm
motility is examined each time under identical conditions further increases accuracy.
Errors incurred by uncontrolled pressure applied to the cover slip are thus avoided.
The 10 micron depth
of the Makler Chamber is ideal for still or movie camera photomicrography, as
it approximately matches the field depth of the objective used in semen analysis.
The Chamber is quickly
and easily available for reuse. In a busy laboratory a large number of tests
per hour can be made by a single technician with minimal technical and material
Makler, A. : Fertil.
Steril., 33:160, 1980.